Gurbani Lesson of the day | Lesson 5 | Gurbani Anusar Naam Simran | Baljeet Singh Delhi

Via facebook posted by a Zulfiqar Tareen.

“Source: Zulfiqar Tareen

September 23 at 7:48pm ·

 With malice towards none, with charity for all…


I humbly apologize to all my Hindu and Sikh brothers and sisters for the horrible mistake my fellow Muslims made in 1947 by dividing the motherland, India, in the name of a fake, fabricated, superstitious, abusive, divisive, ridiculous, absurd, bogus, rubbish, idiotic, nonsensical, sick, dark, evil, and failed ideology called religion, and causing pain, suffering, misery, death, and destruction throughout the land.

The partition caused the slaughter of more than a million innocent Indians, the displacement of 10 millions, property losses worth billions of dollars on both sides, and the kidnapping and rapes of over 100,000 women, who were kidnapped while migrating with their families, kept as sex slaves and raped by individuals and groups in the name of religion for the rest of their useful lives.

“Taqseem-e Hind watan-e Aziz se ghaddari thee”…

(The partition of India was an act of treason by Indian Muslims against their motherland).

Zulfiqar Tareen, a friend of all, the enemy of none.

Please check out how religion destroyed my aunt’s life in my Facebook profile.


Source: http://asiasamachar.com/2016/08/09/god-dasam-granth-part-one/

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/asiasamachar/

| Opinion | 9 Aug 2016 | Asia Samachar |


By Karminder Singh PhD (Boston)

Who is the God of Dasam Granth (DG)? This is the primary question that will be examined in this article.

A cursory study of the Dasam Granth brings forth obeisance of its authors to two primary entities – Mahakaal and Durga.

SEE ALSO: The God of Dasam Granth – Part One 

SEE ALSO: The God of Dasam Granth – Part Two

SEE ALSO: The God of Dasam Granth – Part Three

Both have a plethora of names. Mahan Kosh author Kahn Singh Nabha on pages 201 and 674 describes Durga as the consort of Shivji (the devta of death) and provides more than a dozen names for her including Kalka, Shera Walee, Maha Mayee, Chandika, Seetla, Parvati, Chandee, Shiva and Jug Maata.

Mahakaal is another name for Lord Shivji. Readers can gain further insights on the philosophy here (http://www.speakingtree.in/allslides/why-is-lord-shiva-called-mahakaal).


Linking Mahakaal and Durga

The Shiv Puran depicts two primary forms of Shivji. This concept of duality is defined as  Ardh Narishvar Saroop. The right side of Shivji is male and the left is female. Mahakaal represents the Male component and Kalika the female. A cursory look at the three pictorial depictions of Shivji below – taken from three different sources capture this connection. In the first Shivji rides a bull while Durga rides a tiger. In the second, one destroys by fire, the other by weapons. In the third, the power of one is signified by the trishul and the other by multitude of limbs.

Linking Mahakaal and Durga
Linking Mahakaal and Durga

The Vaam Margee Sect of Shivji

This sect accepts that its primary Deity is the left side of Shivji namely Kalika, Chandee, Durga. And that the origin of creation is the right side namely Mahakaal.

The names Raam, Syam and Nul appear hundreds of times in a variety of places in the Dasam Granth. They are thus believed to be the writer poets of a vast majority of Dasam Granth. Their obeisance to Mahakal and Durga suggests that they are staunch (albeit deviant) members of the Vaam Margee sect.

The biggest Vaam Margee Mandir is called Shri Mahakaleshwar Temple and is located in the holy city of Ujjain, Madh Pardes India. Mahakaleshwar is a combined term from Mahakaal and Eshwar. Meaning Mahakaal is their God.

The following pictures – taken from within the Shri Mahakaleshwar Temple (centre) make the point that the artefact of worship of Shivji – namely the lingam is adorned with a picture of Mahakaal. This means that the lingam is the base artefact but Mahakaal drawn onto the lingam is the primary object of worship.

The following pictures – taken from within the Shri Mahakaleshwar Temple (centre) make the point that the artefact of worship of Shivji – namely the lingam is adorned with a picture of Mahakaal.

Mahakaal in Dasam Granth

The primacy of Mahakaal – above all other Hindu Gods is captured on page 309 as follows:

ਚੌਪਈ॥ ਮੈ ਨ ਗਨੇਸਹਿ ਪ੍ਰਿਥਮ ਮਨਾਊਂ॥

Chaupayee. Mein Na Ganeshey Pritham Manaun.

I do not accept Lord Ganesh as my primary God.


ਕਿਸਨ ਬਿਸਨ ਕਬਹੂੰ ਨਹ ਧਿਆਊਂ॥

Kishen Bishen Kabhu Neh Dhiayu

I will not ever worship Krishen and Vishnu


ਕਾਨ ਸੁਨੇ ਪਹਿਚਾਨ ਨ ਤਿਨ ਸੋ॥

Kaan Suney Pehchaan Na Tin So

I hear of them with my ears, but I recognize them not.


ਲਿਵ ਲਾਗੀ ਮੋਰੀ ਪਗ ਇਨ ਸੋ॥ 434॥

Liv Lagee More Pug En So.

My contemplation is on the feet of the following.


ਮਹਾਕਾਲ ਰਖਵਾਰ ਹਮਾਰੋ॥

Mahakaal Rakhvaar Hamaro

MAHAKAAL is my protector.


ਮਹਾਲੋਹ ਮੈ ਕਿੰਕਰ ਥਾਰੋ॥

Mahaloh Mein Kinker Tharo

Its on Mahaloh (another name of Mahakaal) that I place my obeisance


ਅਪਨਾ ਜਾਨ ਕਰੋ ਰਖਵਾਰ॥

Apna Jaan Karo Rakhvaar

Accept me as you own and protect me


ਬਾਹ ਗਹੇ ਕੀ ਲਾਜ ਬਿਚਾਰ॥ 435॥

Bah Gahe Kee Laaj Bichar.

Hold my arm and protect my honor.


Mahakaal Defined and Described in the Dasam Granth

The charactreristics of Mahakaal are found in pages 41 and again in 810 of the DG:

ਮੁੰਡ ਕੀ ਮਾਲ ਦਿਸਾਨ ਅੰਬਰ ਬਾਮ ਕਰਯੋ ਗਲ ਮੈ ਅਸਿ ਭਾਰੋ॥

Mund Kee Maal Disaan Amber Baam Kareyo Mein As Bharo


ਲੋਚਨ ਲਾਲ ਕਰਾਲ ਦਿਪੈ ਦੋਊ ਭਾਲ ਬਿਰਾਜਤ ਹੈ ਅਨਿਯਾਰੋ॥

Lochan Laal Karal Dipey Dou Bhal Birajat Hai Aneyaro


ਛੁਟੇ ਹੈਂ ਬਾਲ ਮਹਾ ਬਿਕਰਾਲ ਬਿਸਾਲ ਲਸੈ ਰਦ ਪੰਤਿ ਉਜਯਾਰੋ॥

Chutey Hai Baal Maha Bikral Bisal Lasey Rud Pant Ujeyaro


ਛਾਡਤ ਜਵਾਲ ਲਏ ਕਰ ਬਯਾਲ ਸੁ ‘ਕਾਲ’ਸਦਾ ਪ੍ਰਤਿਪਾਲ ਤਿਹਾਰੋ॥

Chadat Jawal Laye Kar Byaal So Kaal Sda Pritpaal Tiharo


In totality the depictions contain the following descriptions: Necklace of Skulls, Nude, Sword in hand, Eyes like burning charcoal on his forehead, Frightening braids, Dangerous teeth, Breathes Fire.

A variety of other names are used for Mahakaal in Dasam Granth. Examples are Sarab Kaal, Kaal, Astujh, KharagKet, Asket etc. Readers may want to note that NONE of these names appear for the usage of God in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji. Their individual meanings (weilder of the sword, the strong armed, the muscled one etc) go against the primary concept of the God of the SGGS to be of a non human nature.

Given the descriptions found of Mahakaal in the Dasam Granth – where his primary function is to fight the demons, protect Durga, and bring forth death and destruction the following images within the Vaam Margee sect fit the description.

Given the descriptions found of Mahakaal in the Dasam Granth – where his primary function is to fight the demons, protect Durga, and bring forth death and destruction the following images within the Vaam Margee sect fit the description.

Mahakaal and Durga as the primary Gods of Dasam Granth.

The following verse on page 73 of DG establishes

ਸਰਬਕਾਲ ਹੈ ਪਿਤਾ ਅਪਾਰਾ॥ ਦੇਬਿ ਕਾਲਕਾ ਮਾਤ ਹਮਾਰਾ॥

Sarabkaal Hai Pita Hamara. Dev Kaalka Maat Hamara

Sarabkaal (Mahakaal) is my father. Devi Kalika (Durga) is my mother. 


In Chandee (aka Durga / Kalika) Kee Vaar the writers of DG make clear that the Sub God of DG is indeed Durga.

gRMQ sqsXw ko kirau, jw sm Avr nw koie[ ijh nimq kv ny kiha so dyh cMfkw soie [Para 233. 

Granth Satsya Ko Karo, Ja Sum Avar Na Koe. Jeh Namet Kav Ney Kaheo, So Deh Chandika Soe.

This seven-chapter granth is now complete, none other is equal to it.  The object of this poet’s narration is the wondourous Chandee (Duga / Kalika/ Shiva).


In Bachittar Natak, the writer makes clear that the primary object of his spirituality is none other thatn Mahakaal and Kalika (Durga). DG Page 54-55.

ਤਹ ਹਮ ਅਧਿਕ ਤਪਸਿਆ ਸਾਧੀ॥

Teh Hum Adhak Tapasiya Sadhee

There I undertook dificult penance 


ਮਹਾਕਾਲ ਕਾਲਕਾ ਅਰਾਧੀ॥ 2॥

Mahakaal Kalika Aradhee

I meditated / prayed to Mahakaal and Kalika (Durga).


ਇਹ ਬਿਧਿ ਕਰਤ ਤਪਸਿਆ ਭਯੌ॥

Eh Bidh Karat Tapaseya Bhayo

Doing so I performed penance.


ਦਵੈ ਤੇ ਏਕ ਰੂਪ ਹਵੈ ਗਯੋ॥ ….॥ 3॥

Dvey Tay Ek Roop Havai Gayo.

I became one form with them. 


In Durga Kee Vaar (later name changed to Chandee Kee Vaar and changed again to  Bhagautee Kee Vaar) the writer makes clear that the object of

Durga Paath Banayea Sabhey Paureea.  Fer Na Junee Aiya Jin Eh Gaiya.

All the paurees of this vaar (55 in total) are composed in praise of Durga. One who sings this composition will not come into the cycle of births and deaths (will attain salvation).

It is clear that the key to salvation in DG lies at the hands of Durga.

The cloisng para of the entire DG pays obeisance to its God for making the completion of DG permissable as follows:

ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾ ਕਰੀ ਹਮ ਪਰ ‘ਜਗਮਾਤਾ॥ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕਰਾ ਪੂਰਨ ਸੁਭਰਾਤਾ॥ …॥ 402॥ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਸਿਧੁਜ ਜਬ ਭਏ ਦਇਆਲਾ॥ ਪੂਰਨ ਕਰਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਤਤਕਾਲਾ॥ . .॥ 403॥

Kirpa Karee Hum Pur Jug Maata. Granth Kra Puran Subhrata. Sri Astujh Jub Bhae Dyala. Puran Kra Granth Tatkala.

The Jug Maata (Durga/ Kalika) blessed me and this granth is now complete. When Sri Astujh (Mahakaal) became benevolent, this granth was completed. 


The Sources of Compositions in the DG

Given the fact that Mahakaal and Durga are found to be the two primary entities of sprititual obeisance and focus at every turn of the DG, there should be no confusion that the God of DG is the God of the Vaam Maragee Sect of Shivji followers. Mahakaal and Durga are the two intergral and inseparable parts of Lord Shivji.

The dual combination of Mahakaal and Durga in the DG is easy to understand because large portions of DG are lifted from Markanday Puran and Shivji Puran. These two and others are the primary sources of the compositions of DG.  The following is the standard verse at the end of virtually every compostion in the DG:

Et Sri Markandey Puraney Sri Chandee Chhritar Ukat Bilas Dev Suresh Sahit Jaikar Shabad Kra Astmo Dhiaye Sampurnang Masta Subh Masat.

Thus completed as the life of revered Chandee narrated through wondorous narratives as  translated from the eighth chapter of the revered literature of devta beings from Markandey Puran’s wondorous of wonders.

Markandey was a devotee of Mahakaal, Durga and Shivji. He is highly revered amongst the Vaam Maragee sect devotees. The Markandy Puran is one of the 18 texts of Snatan and is authored by him.

Mahakaal is clearly described within DG (page 41 and 840 as mentioned above). His Vaam Maragee devotees define MAHA as great.  His other name Sarabkaal. Sarab translates as ALL.  So Sarabkaal is one who is in ALL  time or ALL death. But MAHA and SARAB are both still within the framework of time and death – hence physical.



The God of SGGS

The God of Sri Guru Granth Sahib is AKAAL. Since kaal means time and death; the use of the prefix ‘A’ before Kaal by Guru Nanak suggests that the Sikh God is BEYOND time and death. That is why other traits such as AJOONI (beyond life forms) and SAIBHANG (self created) come into play.

AKAAL is NOT within the framework of time and death. It is BEYOND. It is NOT physical.

There is therefore a world of a difference between AKAAL and Mahakaal.

The  words Maha and Kaal appear as two separate words just once in the entire 1430 page SGGS. They do NOT refer to God, but to ultimate death.

rwmklI mhlw 5 ] jip goibMdu gopwl lwlu ] rwm nwm ismir qU jIvih iPir n KweI mhw kwlu ] 1 ] rhwau ] GGS 885

Ramkli Mehla 5:  Jup Gobind Gopal Lal. Ram Nam Simar Tu Jeveh Fir Na Khayee Maha Kaal. Rahao.

Realize God the Loving Protector. By remembering the Omnipresent’s virtues, you will obtain spiritual life; and be liberated from (the fear of ) ultimate death. 

Karminder-mugshot2Karminder Singh Dhillon, PhD (Boston) writes on Gurbani and Gurmat issues in The Sikh Bulletin, USA. He also conducts Gurbani Katha in local Gurdwaras. He is based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  • This is the personal opinion of the writer or publication and does not necessarily represent the views of the Asia Samachar.


[ASIA SAMACHAR is an online newspaper for Sikhs in Southeast Asia and surrounding countries. We have a Facebook page, do give it a LIKE. Follow us on Twitter. Visit our website: http://www.asiasamachar.com]


This sabd, from page 268 of the Guru Granth Sahib, was recited by bhen g Harmeet Kaur Dhillon during the second day of the Republican National Convention.

You can listen to this sabd sung by Bhai Ravinder Singh g

and by Bhai Nirmal Singh g.


Source: https://www.facebook.com/asiasamachar/?fref=ts

 Opinion | 11July 2016 | Asia Samachar |

By Karminder Singh

In both my previous articles in this series, I and many of those commenting have asked two simple questions.

  • WHAT are the so called “moral messages that are found in each Chritar” as claimed by Gurmukh Singh.
  • WHERE exactly WITHIN the Charitar are these messages to be found.

Not a single verse from any Chritar containing any “moral message” has thus far been produced.

Loud and repeated claims of “Yes, there are moral messages, IF you read beyond the literal,” is code for “there are no messages, really.”

The inability to answer this first question has led Asia Samachar (AS) reader Gyani Jarnail Singh Arshi to ask: “IF indeed there ARE moral messages, why are they BURRIED under a heap of dung?”

A very un-palatable word indeed.

I suppose Arshi is referring to the contents of 404 tales of sexual depravity that are written in crude, graphic and vulgar detail; presented as abhorrently derogatory to women; and based on accounts as immoral and decadent as one can imagine.

SEE ALSO: Rejoice not sharing only the literal meanings

SEE ALSO: Dasam Granth: Twisting Bones Till They Snap

Apologists however keep claiming that should one dig deep enough, a bunch of sweet smelling roses will eventually be found.

And those who choose to call the spade a spade or the heap as heap – such as DG Teekakaar Dr Rattan Singh are accused of undertaking “purely literal work (that) lacks credibility”!

At this point, one might ask: Why does one HAVE to suffer the sensory revulsions of a heap of dung to get to a rose; when gardens of roses abound?  Must we all develop a penchant for dung?

One wonders what the state of the rose that comes out from under a dung will be, if one does indeed come out after all that digging.

Boisterous claims that “abstinence” and “injunction” are the moral messages of the Chirtars amount to plucking stuff from thin air to justify one’s support for the depravity of the 404 Chritars.

The question remains: Where does one find even one sentence with the word “abstinence” or “injunction” in any of the 404 Chritars?

AS reader Balabir Kaur has aptly asked if those who impose “non-existent” messages upon the Chritars are implying that they are “smarter” than the author(s) of the Chritars.



In fact the narrative of every sexual Chritar has thrown abstinence to the dogs.

A maid sent to call the King for a sexual encounter by his 60th Queen (Chritar No 160 DG page 1048) ends up in her own night-long sexual rendezvous with the King.

Of the 48 verses in this Chritar; a full 39 are devoted to detailed descriptions of the multitude of sexual positions. Five verses provide the setting. And four provide the conclusion that the silly Queen never found out what really happened. Is such a story of abstinence?

A woman having sexual relations with her skinny lover (Chritar No 91 DG page 816) panics when her obese lover shows up at the door. She hides the thin one under the bed and continues her debauchery with the fat one. Abstinence?

A young girl caught by her parents in bed with her lover kills both parents, buries them with the help of her lover and continues her decadent activity. If this Chritar conveys a message of abstinence then one needs mental acrobatics to explain it.

The author of Chritar No 68 (DG page 899) thrusts his tongue 100 times into the rear orifice of a horse and declares he is instantly cured of his disease. He urges the medicine man to do likewise, who does the same and gets cured too.

Isn’t the “immoral message” inherent within the narrative – whosoever wants to be cured must do the same repulsive act? One might be excused for asking” What are CP apologists waiting for, then?



Within the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, EVERY Shabad has its own message. The message is contained within the Rahao verse and in its absence the final verse.

By definition the Rahao is the nucleus verse, the contemplative verse, the verse that contains the gist of the shabad and the verse that ties in all the other verses of the shabad.

Two points are worth noting here.

1. It is the writer of the shabad that DECIDES the message. If there are multiple messages, there will be multiple Rahao verses. There are shabads in the SGGS that contain up to 4 Rahaos.

2. The message is always WITHIN the shabad. No plucking from thin air is allowed or becomes necessary.

Gurmukh Singh, in his attempt to belabor the “literal versus deeper meanings” and perhaps to suggest that the CP paradox of no moral messages also applies to the SGGS; uses Kabir’s shabad “Pheel Rababi Baldh Pakhawaj Keuwa Taal Bejaway. Peher Cholna Gedha Nachay Bhaisa Bhagat Keravay” to pose the question:

Would you say that the meaning cannot be any other than …the Elephant plays the Rebab, the Bull the Pakhawaj…. You’d need to decipher the message if the same is not immediately apparent.

YES, one NEEDS to decipher the message. And to do that one DOES NOT make up one’s own “moral messages.” Or pluck them from thin air and claim “ABSTINENCE” or “ANIMAL RIGHTS” or “INJUNCTION” or “EXTINCTION”!

One goes to the RAHAO VERSE that Kabir HIMSELF wrote WITHIN THE SHABAD in question.

The Rahao Verse is: Raja Raam Kakureya Baney Pakaye. Kineey Bhujenharey Khayee. Rahao.

Meaning: From being imbued in an out of tune / worthless worldly state, my mind has acquired the ripened state of Godly melodies / sweetness. Rare is such a blessing.

The music and dance of the animals mentioned depict an out of tune and worthless state of affairs of (Kabir’s) mind. Such needs to be changed. Message deciphered. From the Rahao.



Why then is it become so UNBECOMGING for anyone to ask: WHERE, WITHIN any of the 404 Chritars, is the “Message Verse?”

Why is it also OBJECTIONABLE to request that the “moral messages” of CP to be neither plucked from thin air nor deciphered by acrobatic twisting?

In my Dasam Granth and Fathers Day article I had argued that the DG couplet in question could ONLY be attributed to nine year old Gobind Rai and Guru Teg Bahadur ji though twisting, extrapolating and adding things to the couplet that don’t exist.

Gurmukh’s assertion that the advice is one of spousal fidelity is defective because nine year old Gobind Rai had no spouse until a decade later.

But the Academy [the Kuala Lumpur-based Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji Academy] maintains it was about spousal fidelity and resorts to even more twisting. This time around however, they decided to twist Bhagat Namdev’s shabad from within the SGGS.



The following is the Academy’s response to my Dasam Granth and Father’s Day article.  

“In relation to Fathers Day message in Chritro Pakhyan that was highly misinterpreted and published by some irresponsible people Bhagat Namdev Ji says the EXACT SAME THINGS as an adivice to us in the the Sri Guru Granth Sahib ji.”

Screenshot from SGGS Academy Facebook page - PHOTO / ASIA SAMACHAR
Screenshot from SGGS Academy Facebook page – PHOTO / ASIA SAMACHAR

There are more twists and fabrications that one could discuss, but four are definitely in order.

Frist, Bhagat Namdev’s shabad does NOT say the EXACT SAME things as the CP couplet. That CP (DG) couplet is about a father telling his son not to bed other women in his dreams. Namdev’s shabad is about spirituality as will be made clear in succeeding paragraphs.

Second, the prologue is plucked from thin air and self constructed. It says “Bhagat Namdev uttered the shabad after being informed that one of the devotee is (sic) having an affair with another woman.” 

NOWHERE WITHIN this shabad is there any mention of ANY DEVOTEE or ANY AFFAIR with ANY woman, and ANY advice to that effect. Bhagat ji is talking about his OWN state of mind.

One wonders if reading too much of Chitro Pakhyan leads one to see nothing other than sexual affairs with another woman even where none exist. Worse, does CP condition one to see spiritually elevating Gurbani as being recited over sexual affairs of devotees?

Third, the words Ghalley Dhanda in the 2nd verse is translated as “having an affair.” Again seeing sex and woman where none exist. Prof Sahib Singh, in Darpan (page 4826), correctly translates these terms as “negative behaviours, lies.”

We use the term “Kum Dhanda” in our everday language to explain work related behaviours.

Fourth, the Shabad is titled LOYALTY. Twisting again. The title of a shabad ought to come from the RAHAO verse. The Rahao Verse in this shabad is: Papee Ka Ghar Agney Mahe. Jalut Rahey Mitvey Kab Nahe. Rahao. 

Translation: This sinful mind of mine (papee ghar) is overcome by greed. The fire of greed does not show signs of getting extinguished (meaning the mind does not want to be CONTENT).

The shabad with the translation as provided by SGGS Academy
The shabad with the translation as provided by SGGS Academy

Readers can see that the word LOYALTY does NOT exist in this Rahao verse. The issue is thus of CONTENTMENT or lack of it.

Within the rest of the shabad, three examples are given by Namdev Ji in explaining the desire of NOT wanting to be CONTENT with things given to him by God.

In verse 1, Bhagat Ji tells his mind to be content with his God-given spouse.

In verse 2, Bhagat Ji says be content with the spirituality into which God has placed you.

In verse 3, Bhagat Ji says be content with the physique that God has blessed you.

In the final verse, Bhagat Ji tells us So Bhaj Par Hai Gur Kee Sarna. Come into the Sharan of God. Coming into His sharan is being CONTENT with all that He has given.

The message, therefore, from the Rahao verse is that “greed, and not being CONTENT with all that is given to me by God” is the root of my spiritual problem.

To say, therefore, that this shabad of Bhagat Namdev is saying the EXACT SAME thing as the CP couplet is utter nonsense.



The Chitro Pakhyaan  of the Dasam Granth is decadence personified. What is wholly immoral in narrative can never be moral in its message. It is as plain and simple as this.

The only way to super-impose morality on the 404 tales of sexual debauchery that constitute the CP is by plucking “moral messages” from thin air, by twisting the sexual narratives or by intentional mis-translations.

No prophet of any faith would want his followers to suffer such depravity. No prophet could thus have authored any such abhorrent writings. Certainly not any of our spirituality elevated and Godly Gurus. Certainly not Guru Gobind Singh ji.


Karminder-mugshot2Karminder Singh Dhillon, PhD (Boston) writes on Gurbani and Gurmat issues in The Sikh Bulletin, USA. He also conducts Gurbani Katha in local Gurdwaras. He is based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  • This is the personal opinion of the writer or publication and does not necessarily represent the views of the Asia Samachar.